Targets Project Approach


The TARGETS project focuses on a holistic analysis and improvement of energy aspects related to both, ship design and ship operation at sea.  
To achieve the goal of a ship optimised for energy consumption TARGETS takes a holistic view at the causes of energy consumption during ship operation, ways to minimise them and the use of additional, alternative forms of energy for ship operations. In doing so, the project addresses:

  • The most important hydrodynamic causes for energy consumption, i.e. ship resistance and propulsion.
  • Promising technologies for auxiliary energy generation (from non-fossil sources).
  • The management of energy consumption on board a ship.
  • The integration of technologies to reduce energy consumption into a holistic management & simulation system.

Approach general

Ship Resistance

Approach Ship ResistanceImproved prediction methods are developed to assess ship form resistance as well as the effects of surface roughness influencing the viscous resistance of the ship hull. Substantial improvements are made to the FreSCo' RANS code. This includes the use of adjoint formulations for the optimisation of hull forms.

Ship Propulsion

Approach Ship PropulsionShip propulsion is equally contributing to hydrodynamic efficiency and hence determines energy efficiency of operation. TARGETS develops a focused, high performance standard propeller series for initial design, based on an existing established propeller series, which forms the basis of subsequent improvements.

The standard series is followed by developments for specific Propulsion Improvement Devices (PID) involving a series of contra-rotating propellers (CRP) for commercial vessels as well as a range of pre- and post-swirl devices.

Auxiliary Energy

TARGETS analyses the use of different auxiliary energy sources, including photovoltaic installations and different options for harnessing wind energy for the propulsion of ships.

Approach Auxiliary Energy

Operation and Scenarios

Detailed investigations of operational scenarios are performed using a series of energy audits performed on-board ships.

These yield a number of energy saving potentials (ESPs) which are analysed and ranked based on a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) to provide input data for later benchmark exercises.


Dynamic Energy Modelling

TARGETS develops a complete dynamic energy model covering all components relevant to energy consumption, - conversion and generation. For each energy relevant element of a ship (causes and onboard energy systems) an energy module is developed for the model. Each of the energy modules is associated to a set of equations corresponding to its operational state and coupling to other modules, and with a set of state variables. The models are used to simulate the energy performance of a ship for different conditions and in a second stage to optimise energy consumption for a given set of operational parameters.

Approach Dynamic Energy Modelling



Towards the end of the project, TARGETS will perform Energy performance benchmarks on the basis of the completed model developed. These will be compared with industry standards of selected ships from the energy audits. As a result, key performance indicators (KPIs) will be established.